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10 of the Most Daring Museum Heists from Historic Times to the Present

26 August - 2023
by Vincent Moleveld


Museum heists have long fascinated the world, with tales of audacious thieves targeting priceless treasures from various eras. From the legendary theft of the Mona Lisa to more recent daring escapades, these heists showcase both criminal ingenuity and the vulnerabilities of even the most guarded institutions. This article delves into ten of the most daring museum heists, spanning from historic times to the present day.

The Mona Lisa Heist (1911)

The theft of Leonardo da Vinci's iconic masterpiece, the Mona Lisa, from the Louvre Museum in Paris remains one of the most famous art heists in history. The painting was stolen by an Italian handyman who managed to conceal it under his clothing. It was recovered two years later, propelling the painting to even greater fame.

Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum Heist (1990)

Two thieves disguised as police officers infiltrated the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston and stole 13 works of art valued at over $500 million. Despite extensive efforts, the stolen pieces, including works by Vermeer and Rembrandt, have never been recovered.

Kunsthal Rotterdam Heist (2012)

Seven valuable paintings, including pieces by Picasso, Monet, and Matisse, were stolen from the Kunsthal Museum in the Netherlands. The daring burglars managed to circumvent security systems and escape with their loot before authorities could respond.

Paris Modern Art Museum Heist (2010)

Thieves made off with five significant artworks, including pieces by Picasso and Braque, from the Paris Museum of Modern Art. The thief managed to evade multiple layers of security, disappearing with the stolen pieces.

National Museum of Anthropology Heist (1985)

A staggering 140 Mayan and Aztec artifacts were stolen from Mexico's National Museum of Anthropology. The theft highlighted the vulnerabilities of even well-guarded cultural institutions.

Oslo Munch Museum Heist (2004)

In a bold daytime heist, thieves stole Edvard Munch's iconic paintings "The Scream" and "Madonna" from the Munch Museum in Oslo. The stolen works were recovered two years later, exposing the global art black market.

Banco Central Burglary (2005)

In Brazil, thieves executed a meticulously planned heist involving a 78-meter tunnel to the Banco Central's vault. They made off with around $70 million in cash, marking one of history's largest heists.

Dresden Green Vault Heist (2019)

Thieves targeted Germany's Dresden Green Vault, stealing priceless 18th-century jewels, including the renowned Dresden White Diamond. The heist, executed in minutes, emphasized the vulnerabilities of historic treasures in the digital age.

Doge's Palace Heist (1991)

Two thieves disguised as police officers stole precious artifacts from Venice's Doge's Palace, including a golden plate and a gold-encrusted comb. Their escape through the city's canals added a cinematic touch to the heist.

Sao Paulo Museum of Art Heist (2007)

Armed men stormed the Sao Paulo Museum of Art in Brazil, stealing valuable paintings by Picasso and Portinari. The stolen pieces were later recovered, following an international sting operation.


From the audacious theft of the Mona Lisa in 1911 to the recent heists that challenge modern security measures, museum thefts have left an indelible mark on cultural institutions worldwide. These daring escapades reveal the lengths to which criminals are willing to go for priceless treasures, while also highlighting the ongoing struggle to balance preserving cultural heritage and making it accessible to the public.